Municipality Water Treatment Plant:
With growing populations and an overall increase in living standards, not only is the overall demand for freshwater pushing limits (one third of world now lives in areas of “water stress”) and increasing pollution from urban, industrial and agricultural sources is making available resources either unusable or – if there is no alternative – dangerous to health.
We at PCE preserve the nature’s most precious resource-WATER and treat, conserve and serve million litres of pure and safe drinking water to the needs of societies in urban and rural India.
SURFACE WATER TREATMENT:
Water resources including rivers, lakes or fresh water wetlands are known as surface water resources. Precipitation is the natural recharging source for the surface water resources and it also maintain the hydrological cycle. Rivers are the major source of water in India.
Almost 5 million deaths in the developing world annually are due to water related diseases, much of this being preventable with adequate treatment and supplies of safe water. Surface water typically contains a high suspended solids content, bacteria, algae, organic matter, creating bad taste and odour. Hence require suitable and sustainable treatment We offer following treatment solutions.
• Conventional treatment including clarification (coagulation/flocculation, sedimentation or dissolved air flotation), sand filtration, activated carbon adsorption and disinfection.
GROUND WATER TREATMENT:
Water sources like subsurface water or water within aquifers are known as ground water resources. Ground water resource recharge from the precipitation mostly in the monsoon seasons in India. Canal irrigation and other form of irrigation systems also contribute to the recharging of the ground water.
Ground water occurrence in the country is highly uneven due to diversified geological formations. Approximate domestic requirements in rural areas and over 50% of requirements of urban and industrial uses in the country are being met with Ground water. Ground water is of good quality and suitable for drinking, agricultural or industrial purposes. Ground water in shallow aquifers is generally suitable for use for different purposes and is mainly of Calcium Bicarbonate and Mixed type. The quality in deeper aquifers also varies from place to place and is generally found suitable for common uses.
There is salinity problem in the coastal tracts and high incidence of fluoride, Arsenic, Iron & heavy metals etc in isolated pockets have also been reported.
We offer following methods for Ground Water Treatment;
• Chemical – Carbon absorption, ion exchange, chemical precipitation, and oxidation are all ways to achieve clean groundwater by way of chemical remediation
• Physical - Using air to strip water clean, or air sparging is one such way. Pump and treat, and using multiple techniques. This process involves physically removing the water from the ground and treating it by way of biological or chemical means.
Municipality Waste Water Treatment Plant:
What is Wastewater:
Wastewater can have a number of definitions (UN-Water 2015). The approach taken in this policy is a very broad definition following that outlined in the UNEP/UN-Habitat document 'Sick Water?'. Thus, Wastewater is defined as "a combination of one or more of:
• domestic effluent consisting of blackwater (excreta, urine and faecal sludge) and grey- water (kitchen and bathing wastewater);
• water from commercial establishments and institutions, including hospitals;
• industrial effluent, storm water and other urban run-off;
• agricultural, horticultural and aquaculture effluent, either dissolved or as suspended matter
Although, using this definition, the term ‘wastewater’ clearly encompasses domestic, commercial, industrial, agricultural components and also fecal sludge, these are sometimes covered separately in order to clarify or highlight the importance of the individual components or wastewater streams. (UN-Water, 2015).
Types of wastewater:
Wastewater comes in three main types namely Black water, Gray water and Yellow water.
This is wastewater that originates from toilet fixtures, dish washers, and food preparation sinks. It is made up of all the things that one can imagine going down the toilets, bath and sink drains. They include poop, urine, toilet paper and wipes; body cleaning liquids, anal cleansing water and so on. They are known to be highly contaminated with dissolved chemicals, particulate matter and is very pathogenic.
This is wastewater that originates from non-toilet and food fixtures such as bathroom sinks, laundry machines, spas, bathtubs and so on. Technically it is sewage that does not contain poop or urine. Gray water is treated very differently from Black water and is usually suitable for re-use.
This is basically urine collected with specific channels and not contaminated with either black water or Gray water.
Sources of wastewater:
This includes all wastewater generated by home dwellings, public restrooms, hotels, restaurants, motels, resorts, schools, places of worship, sports stadiums, hospitals and other health centres, apartments and the like. They all produce high volumes of wastewater.
This includes water from floods (storm water), runoff (rainwater running through cracks in the ground and into gutters), water from swimming pools, water from car garages and cleaning centres including laundromats, beauty salons, commercial kitchens, energy generation plants, industries and so on. Wastewater is also generated from agricultural facilities. Water used for cleaning in animal farms, washing harvested produce and cleaning farm equipment.
How is wastewater harmful?
In certain parts of the world, especially in developing countries, wastewater is pumped directly into the sea or into fresh water bodies without any form of treatment. In other parts of developed countries, lack of adequate wastewater treatment infrastructure, maintenance and outdated systems heavily compromise wastewater treatment efforts. The effects of this (either treated or partly treated) can be classified in the following:
Fresh water bodies and marine waters, into which wastewater is discharged may be polluted and rendered unsafe for human use. Depending on what is discharged, aquatic life may be harmed too.
There is water scarcity in many places in the world. Wastewater discharged on lands can leach into underground water tables and potentially contaminate aquifers and underground water. If discharged in freshwater bodies, it may render water sources unsuitable for use.
All ecosystems are connected and they all ultimately depend on water. Similarly, all water (surface and underground) is connected. This means careless wastewater discharge can have some serious ripple effect. One common effect of wastewater is the eutrophication of fresh water bodies and oceans. If one part of the ecosystem chain is destroyed, it can upset its entire food chain.
Agriculture / Fisheries / Tourism:
Wastewater for irrigation may contain unsuitable chemicals and higher concentrations of nutrients needed for crops. This can result in delay and under yielding. Wastewater used for animal farming may also contain harmful things and chemicals dissolved in them. Animals may die, and there is a chance that humans that eat such animals may be harmed too. In some places, fecal sewage is discharged directly into the sea/river. The discharge contains pathogens and harmful dissolved chemicals which can affect fishing in that area. The smell and such behaviour do not encourage tourism to that area.
Health of urban and rural populations:
Wastewater is a big health issue, as it carries and transports a myriad of diseases and illnesses. It is believed that about 2.2 million people die each year (globally) from diarrhoeal disease. (WHO) At least 1.8 million children under five years die every year due to water related disease, or one every 20 seconds (WHO, 2018)
What is Waste water Management?
Wastewater management is the process of taking wastewater and treating/managing it in order to reduce the contaminants to acceptable levels so as to be safe for discharge into the environment. There are effectively two basic types of wastewater treatment: centralized and decentralized. Centralized systems are large-scale systems that gather wastewater from many users for treatment at one or a number of sites, whereas decentralized systems are dealing with wastewater from individual users, or small clusters of users, at the neighborhood or small community level. The choice between centralized or decentralized wastewater management systems will depend upon a number of different factors, but it is important that full consideration be given to both the options rather than the situation that has existed in the past where sewerage was often considered to be the only 'proper' form of urban sanitation (UN-Water, 2015)
SEA Water Desalination :
Key issues in Seawater Desalination:
Access to sufficient quantities of water for drinking and domestic uses and also for commercial and industrial processes is critical to health and well being. With growth of world population the availability of the limited quantities of fresh water decreases. From the 71% earth surface water, 97.4% is sea water and 2.6% is fresh water.
With the advances of desalination technologies, sea water has become an interesting water source to cope with fresh water shortage. This process can be applied wherever a reliable source of water is needed.
Seawater is also rich in minerals which have market interest. With the large demand of salt in many geographical areas, producing salt.
The most widely applied and commercially available technologies for sea water desalination can be divided in two types: membrane processes and thermal processes.
Reverse osmosis (RO) and Nanofiltration (NF) are currently the leading sea water desalination solutions. The advances in key equipment (membranes, pumps, energycost recovery device), turned the process energy efficient, resulting in a low investment cost (CAPEX) and low operational cost (OPEX).
Nowadays, desalination* has become a very affordable solution to cope with fresh water shortage typically in tropical as well as of off-shore areas.
The desalination core process is based on Reverse Osmosis Membrane technology, but stand alone, it doesn't provide safe drinking water, nor does it guarantee an efficient plant.
The pretreatment includes all the necessary treatment step ahead of the reverse osmosis plant. It is determining for plant life time and to minimise chemical cleaning and membrane replacement. It has a direct impact on the plant performance.
There are as many membrane types as applications. They range from "high rejection" to "ultra low energy" or " high boron rejection".
The reverse osmosis process can also be built with one or two passes, depending on the product water requirements and the seawater salinity and temperature. In most cases, 1 pass is sufficient to rich the EU drinking water standards, specially regarding the boron content (1 mg/L). To rich WHO boron guideline (0.5mg/L), a second pass might be necessary (Boron removal process)
The energy recovery device is the key factor that determines the plant electrical costs. It must be chosen carefully based on the local energy costs and environment policies.
Post-treatment and/or polishing steps are required to condition the water after the reverse osmosis membrane process to make it suitable to your application.
Brine disposal can be an environmental and economical issue in some areas where the fauna and flora are sensitive to local seawater salinity increase. Brine disposal should be studied and engineered case by case.
The art of desalination is to determine and combine available technologies to optimize water production costs and quality.
To adapt our Desalination Plants to your local needs, we offer containerized mobile units from Intake to Distribution up to a production up to capacity of 200 m3/h of desalinated water.
All type of water can be produced from a desalination plant:
• WHO or EU drinking water
• Irrigation water
• Process water : boiler feed water, cooling water
• Demi or Ultrapure water
All type of natural seawater source can be treated
• Shallow Surface seawater
• Deep seawater
• Brackish river water
• Beach well seawater