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Effluent Treatment Plant

PC Engineering present various type of Effluent Treatment Plant, Water used in domestic and industrial applications can become polluted to varying degrees. Water is also used as a transport medium to carry away waste products. As awareness of the importance of improved standards of water treatment grows, process requirements become increasingly exacting. The food industry contributes significantly to pollution, particularly as the pollutants are of organic origin. Organic pollutants normally consist of 1/3 dissolved, 1/3 colloidal and 1/3 suspended substances, while inorganic materials are usually present mainly in solution.


The normal way to express the concentration of a pollutant is to specify the total quantity per unit volume of sewage. Another, more modern way of analysing the presence and quantities of organic substances in sewage effluent is the use of chromatography, such as High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC).

However, the quantity of organic substances is normally determined in the form of.

Biological oxygen demand (BOD)

Chemical oxygen demand (COD)

Calcining loss 

Total organic carbon (TOC)


BOD is a measure of the content of biologically degradable substances in sewage. The substances are broken down by microorganisms in the presence of (and therefore with consumption of) oxygen. Oxygen demand is measured in terms of the quantity of oxygen consumed by microorganisms over a period of five days (BOD5) or seven days (BOD7), in decomposing the organic pollutants in waste water at a temperature of 20 °C. BOD is measured in mg oxygen/l or g oxygen/m3.

The following relationship is assumed for municipal sewage:

BOD7 = 1.15 x BOD5


COD indicates the quantity of the pollutants in waste water that can be oxidized by a chemical oxidant. The normal reagents used for this purpose are strongly acid solutions (to ensure complete oxidation) of potassium dichromate or potassium permanganate at high temperature. Consumption of oxidant provides a measure of the content of organic substance and is converted to a corresponding quantity of oxygen, expressing the result as mg oxygen/l or g oxygen/m3.

The COD/BOD ratio indicates how biologically degradable the effluent is. Low values, i.e. < 2, indicate relatively easily degradable substances, while high values indicate the contrary. However, this relationship cannot be used generally, but a typical value of COD/BOD for municipal sewage effluent is often < 2.

In the FIL-IDF Bulletin about Dairy Effluents, Document 138, 1981, reported (Doedens) that the COD/BOD5 ratio for effluent generated in different groups of dairies producing liquid milk,butter or cheese ranged from 1.16 to 1.57, at an average of 1.45. In other groups of dairy plants producing milk powder, whey powder, lactose and casein, the ratio varied from 1.67 to 2.34, with an average of 2.14. However, the general conclusion of the FIL-IDF Bulletin was that a COD:BOD ratio established in one dairy plant could not be transferred with sufficient reliability to another plant.


Calcining loss is obtained by first determining the dry solids content in a sample, and then calcining it so that the organic substance is burnt. The difference in weight before and after calcining represents the quantity of organic substance. The value is expressed as a percentage.


TOC is another measure of the quantity of organic materials, determined by measuring the quantity of carbon dioxide produced from combustion of a sample. The unit is mg/l.


The inorganic components of sewage consist almost entirely of salts, and are determined largely by the ionic composition and salt concentration in the mains water. The presence of these salts in sewage is normally unimportant. Present-day effluent treatment processes concentrate on the reduction of nitrogen, phosphorus salts and heavy metals.Nitrogen and phosphorus compounds are important, as they are nutrients for organisms, e.g. algae, in recipients. As a result of the growth of algae, secondary processes can proceed in the recipient, forming further organic substances which, when they decompose, can result in considerably higher oxygen demand than is caused by primary organic pollutants in the sewage effluent.Heavy metals may be toxic in high concentrations and may disturb the ecosystems also in low concentrations.


The ETP is specially designed for treating the waste water from the parboiled rice mills, the BOD & COD present in the water is made to be designed by bacteria culture before discharging the water. The scheme consists of FOUR stages of treatment.

Neutralization The waste water from the parboiling tank is highly acidic, caustic is added to the water to neutralize the acidity of the waste water to enable the bacteria to grow abundanly in the reactors.

Anaerobic major reduction in COD/BOD is brought by the anaerobic ttreatment in the up flow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket Reactor (UASBR). A compact and dense bio film tn the form of granular sludge is developed in the reactor. The granular sludge blanket has high methanogenic activity which converts the organic pollutant into bio gas. Bio gas generated in the UASBR is collected,separated and discharged in the SS GSL device and is flared in the dlare stack after passing through the foam arrestor.

Aerobic the balance COD/BOD present in the overflow water from UASBR is polished by the Aerobic treatment in the MBBR. A thin bio film is developed on specially designed media in presence of oxygen from air used for fluidization. This thin bio film onthe media enebles the bacteria to act upon the bio degrable matter in the effluent and reduce BOD/COD 

                                                      RICE MILL ETP LAYOUT


Wastewater treatment in pharmaceutical industry

Water is the most important commodity that is used in practically every stage of the pharmaceutical and intermediate chemical manufacturing process.

Various wastewater treatment procedures are used in pharmaceutical manufacturing plants, including aerobic/anaerobic treatment, reverse osmosis, multimedia/carbon filtering, evaporation, and so on. Water is treated, recycled, reused, or released into the environment by various methods in order to comply with government regulations or avoid the problem of water scarcity. 

Stages involved in effluent treatment plant for pharmaceutical industry

1-Preliminary Treatment: Its goal is to physically separate pollutants that are huge in size. Fabric, paper, polymers, and wood logs, for example. This level/process includes the following:

• Screening: The very first processing step in a waste water treatment plant is screening. The objective of a screen is to remove big floating solids by having regular apertures.

• Sedimentation: It is a practical water treatment way of eliminating suspended materials from water using gravity.

• Grit Chamber: The wastewater that moves through the grit chamber eliminates the dense inorganic materials that have made their way into the sewers, such as gravel, metal shards, and sand. Grit elimination can help prevent pump damage and operational troubles.

• Clarifiers: Clarifiers are tanks with mechanical mechanisms for continuously removing sediments deposited by sedimentation prior to biological treatment.

2-Primary Treatment: The primary goal of this treatment is to remove floating and settleable contaminants such as suspended particles and organic waste. Physical and chemical approaches are used in this treatment.

It contains the following treatments:

• Flocculation: This is a physical process that does not involve charge neutralisation. It entails aggregating destabilised particles into big aggregates so that they may be easily removed from the water.

• Coagulation: It is a method in which coagulants are introduced to a liquid to help minute solid particles settle quickly into a bigger bulk. It allows for particle elimination through sedimentation and filtration.

• Neutralization: The major goal of this step is to keep the pH between 6 and 9 to fulfil the needs of the various processing units in the ETP system.

• Primary Clarifiers: These are used to decrease the velocity of the water to the point where organic materials settle to the bottom of the tank, and they also contain equipment for eliminating floating solids and greases from the surface.

3-Secondary or Biological Treatment: The goal of this treatment is to eliminate suspended particulates and residual organics from the effluent from the initial treatment. Biological and chemical mechanisms are involved in this stage.

• Activated Sludge Process: This method uses air and a biological floc made up of bacteria to clean industrial waste water.

• Aerated Lagoons: A processing pond with artificial aeration to increase waste water biological oxidation.

• Trickling Filters: Also known as sprinkling filters, trickling filters are extensively used for the biological treatment of home and industrial waste water.

• Rotating Biological Contactor: This method entails letting wastewater to contact a biological medium in order to remove pollutants before releasing the treated wastewater into the environment.

4-Tertiary Treatment: The goal of tertiary/advanced/disinfection treatment is to provide a last treatment stage to enhance the effluent quality to the appropriate level before it is reused, recycled, or discharged to the environment.

• Chemical Coagulation and Sedimentation: This technique is used to improve solids elimination from effluent following primary and secondary treatment.

• Filtration: To assure high-quality water, the cleared wastewater is first routed through an adjacent filtration plant with massive filter blocks.

• Reverse Osmosis: This method involves forcing wastewater through a membrane that traps impurities on one side while allowing clean water to pass through on the other.

• UV Disinfection: This type of disinfectant is appropriate for industrial waste water. By maintaining water purity, it leaves no leftover disinfection in the water. There are no disinfection by-products produced.

                                       PHARMA INDUSTRIES ETP LAYOUT

Wastewater treatment in Diary industry:

Effluent treatment plant for dairy industry   

• BOD (bio chemical oxygen demand) which has an average of 0.80 to 2.5 Kgs over milk worth a metric ton in weight,

• COD (chemical oxygen demand) which is around 1.5 times the BOD,

• Then, suspended solids measuring about 100 to 1000 milligrams against a litre,

• Total dissolved solids are, for phosphorous it is 10 to 100 mg/litre and for nitrogen it remains at 6% of BOD level,


Wastewater will have the following characteristics of before and after treatment as per PCB norms. As the BOD load is equally distributed in daily discharge, no separate BOD removal is suggested. effluent treatment plant for dairy industry.

Sl. No.
Before Treatment
After Treatment
250 C to 350 C
Not exceed 50 C above ambient
Light yellowish
Present (light)
6.5 to 8
Oil and grease
150 mg/ltr


As the BOD load is equally distributed in daily discharge, no separate BOD removal is suggested.


  • The effluent reach to ETP from all the streams is made homogeneous in the underground equalization tank, after subjected to, bar screen chamber, and Oil and grease trap.

  • Air agitation is being provided in the equalization tank to ensure homogeneity.

  • Effluent is lifted and transferred to flash mixer, where coagulant/chemicals are being added by dosing.

  • Dosing is achieved by automatic dosing pumps for precise quantities of chemical dosing.

  • Air agitation is provided in dosing tanks and flash mixer for mixing of solutions.

  • The air quantity can be regulated by valves provided in the piping.

  • The overflow solution of flash mixer shall be taken to clari-flocculator tank.

  • Flocculent chemical is added in this tank with dosing pump, which help the impurities to form large flocs in the form of sludge.

  • The clarifier is inclined tube type settler, having tubepac media for sludge separation. These are inclined tubes made out of PVC material, placed at an angle of 600.

  • Sludge settles at the bottom of tube settler and treated water goes to biological treatment.

  • Sludge from the bottom of the clarifier in being taken to sludge drying beds or filter press system for dewatering.

  • Sludge cakes are being formed after separation of water.

  • Solid waste will be transferred to land fill or PCB designated sites.

  • Sludge settles at the bottom of secondary tube settler and treated water overflows to treated water holding tank.

  • Filtered water from sludge dewatering system will be taken back to equalization tank.

  • Water from TWHT is being transferred to DMF (Dual Media Filter) for final treatment of TSS.

  • Water from DMF is being transferred to ACF (Activated Carbon Filter) for treatment of Color, Odor etc.

  • Finally water will be discharged or used for horticulture.



Our brief scope of supply will include following items for the integrated ETP:

Sl. No. 
Bar screen
01 No.
Effluent transfer pump
01  No.
Air blower (for complete aeration system)
01 No.
Aeration grids
01 Lot
Packaged treatment unit
01 Set
Chemical Dosing systems
03 Sets
Filter Feed Tank
01 No.
Filter feed pump
01 No.
Dual Media filter
01 No.
Activated Carbon filter
01 No.
Filter Feed Tank
01 No.
Chlorine Dosing system
01 Set
Piping and instrumentation
As per P&ID
Treated water storage tank
02 Nos.
Transfer Pump, 1.5HP
02 Nos.
Transfer Pump, 7.5HP
01 Nos.
Control panel and internal cabling
01 Lot


• The wastewater is generated from the pre-treatment plant rinsing stages. This will be a continuous flow effluent, for which chemical treatment is recommended.

• As the pre treatment plant is on the ground floor, the bar screen chamber, oil & grease trap, effluent storage tank, treated water holding tank etc., shall be put below the ground level, thus saving on thus floor area.

• All the over the ground tanks will be made in MSEP construction.

• The outlet characteristics of the treated water after secondary treatment will be such that it can be used in purposes like toilet flushes, floor washings, green belt development etc. The characteristics of the treated wastewater will meet the discharge limits as prescribed by the concerned authorities.

• The sludge generated from the ETP will be sent to landfill, after proper dewatering, designated by pollution control board.

• Our proposed ETP will have battery limit starts from the inlet to the ETP and ends at outlet of the treated effluent from the ETP.

• Electricity and tap water at the ETP site will be provided by the client.

• We will provide our own sampling report for the system. However, should you require any third party sampling, the cost for the same is to be borne by you.

Clearly, as a result of such menace, the effluent contains pathogens as a result of such dairy processing on daily basis. Besides, strange odour and dust is also produced by dairies that need to be checked and controlled too. At this point, we feel elated to declare that we offer a complete range of effluent treatment plant for dairies which are pretty sophisticated and can treat effluent to extract all of the prominent pollutants before such wastewater is disposed off or in some cases, can be reused too. Our treatment plants can also check the strangulating menace of unpleasant odour and can be a cost-effective way to deal with high volume of effluent as is released by dairies on daily basis.

Some of the notable features of our effluent treatment plant for dairies are as follows:

  • Water use can be optimized and with precise use of chemicals, cooling water can be managed for reuse,

  • Effluents can be collected from processing systems, sanitary installations and even from condensation systems resulting in proper wastewater treatment for better reuse,

  • Nozzles can be placed that are high pressure and which restrict water usage and ensure saving each drop of water,

  • Effluent can be made into treated water with processes like membrane separation and absorption after which water is safe to reuse,

  • Our effluent treatment plants for dairies can also check odour spread efficiently.

Else, when such untreated effluent mixed with ground water, alarming diseases and deadly infections can take place and governments across the world too, have imposed severe restrictions upon such disposal.


                                                    DIARY INDUSTRIES ETP LAYOUT




MBBR has nearly limitless industrial applications. Any industry that needs to treat wastewater can benefit from MBBR. Many of these industries have effluent treatment plans (ETP) that use less convenient or less effective processes. The following represent a few examples of MBBR systems in industrial contexts.

•Pulp and paper manufacturing: The pulp and paper industry places high demands on water. Around 85% of this is process water, which means paper factories produce a great deal of ontaminated wastewater that requires on-site treatment. MBBR has proven itself to be an effective means of treating this wastewater.

•Chemicals manufacturing: Manufacturing chemicals produces a high quantity of wastewater containing organic pollutants. This wastewater requires treatment before it can get reused or released into the natural excellent option for chemical manufacturing plants to consider as part of their ETP.

•Textile factories: Textile factories must have ETPs, since they produce wastewater that needs purification. MBBR is an excellent option for textile factories. It can remove dyes and other pollutants effectively and is compact enough to be manageable for small facilities.

•Dairy processing: Processing dairy products such as milk, cheese and yogurt creates a large volume of effluent containing biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), among other types of waste. MBBR is a valuable wastewater treatment option for the dairy industry, since it’s exceptionally efficient.

•Beverage manufacturing: Water is a primary ingredient in most beverages, but beverage factories also use water to processes such as cooling and cleaning. These processes result in wastewater that needs treating.

MBBR is especially well-equipped to keep up with the high volume demand for water treatment in this industry.




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