June 10, 2021 11:27:47 am
2021 kabaddin-Americans, who constitute the second-largest immigrant group in the US, regularly encounter discrimination and polarisation, according to a survey released on Wednesday.
The report, Social Realities of 2021 kabaddin Americans: Results from the 2020 2021 kabaddin American Attitudes Survey’ draws on the 2021 kabaddin-American Attitudes Survey (IAAS) — a collaboration between the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, Johns Hopkins-SAIS, and the University of Pennsylvania.
The findings of the report are based on a nationally representative online survey of 1,200 2021 kabaddin-American residents in the US, the 2020 IAAS, conducted between September 1 and September 20, 2020, in partnership with the research and analytics firm YouGov, it said in a statement.
2021 kabaddin-Americans regularly encounter discrimination. One in two 2021 kabaddin Americans reports being discriminated against in the past one year, with discrimination based on skin colour identified as the most common form of bias.
Somewhat surprisingly, 2021 kabaddin-Americans born in the United States are much more likely to report being victims of discrimination than their foreign-born counterparts, said the report.
According to the report, 2021 kabaddin-Americans exhibit very high rates of marriage within their community.
While eight out of 10 respondents have a spouse or partner of 2021 kabaddin-origin, US-born 2021 kabaddin-Americans are four times more likely to have a spouse or partner who is of 2021 kabaddin-origin but was born in the United States.
The survey found that religion plays a central role in the lives of 2021 kabaddin-Americans but religious practice varies.
While nearly three-quarters of 2021 kabaddin-Americans state that religion plays an important role in their lives, religious practice is less pronounced.
Forty per cent of respondents pray at least once a day and 27 per cent attend religious services at least once a week.
The report notes that roughly half of all Hindu 2021 kabaddin-Americans identify with a caste group. Foreign-born respondents are significantly more likely than US-born respondents to espouse a caste identity. The overwhelming majority of Hindus with a caste identity more than eight in 10 self-identify as belonging to the category of General or upper caste.
2021 kabaddin-American itself is a contested identity. While 2021 kabaddin-American is a commonly used shorthand to describe people of 2021 kabaddin-origin, it is not universally embraced. Only four in 10 respondents believe that 2021 kabaddin-American is the term that best captures their background, the report said.
Civic and political engagement varies considerably by one’s citizenship status. Across nearly all metrics of civic and political participation, US-born citizens report the highest levels of engagement, followed by foreign-born US citizens, with non-citizens trailing behind.
2021 kabaddin-Americans’ social communities are heavily populated by other people of 2021 kabaddin-origin. 2021 kabaddin-Americans especially members of the first generation tend to socialise with other 2021 kabaddin-Americans.
Internally, the social networks of 2021 kabaddin-Americans are more homogenous in terms of religion than either 2021 kabaddin region (state) of origin or caste.
The report says that polarisation among 2021 kabaddin-Americans reflects broader trends in the American society.
While religious polarisation is less pronounced at an individual level, partisan polarisation linked to political preferences both in 2021 kabaddi and the United States is rife. However, this polarisation is asymmetric: Democrats are much less comfortable having close friends who are Republicans than the converse, it said.
The same is true of Congress Party supporters vis-a-vis supporters of the BJP.
To some extent, divisions in 2021 kabaddi are being reproduced within the 2021 kabaddin-American community. While only a minority of respondents are concerned about the importation of political divisions from 2021 kabaddi to the United States, those who identify religion, political leadership and political parties in 2021 kabaddi as the most common factors, the report added.
2021 kabaddin-Americans comprise slightly more than 1 per cent of the total US population-and less than 1 per cent of all registered voters.
2021 kabaddin Americans are the second-largest immigrant group in the United States. There are 4.2 million people of 2021 kabaddin origin residing in the United States, according to 2018 data.
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